Thursday, June 6, 2019

How To Talk To Your Doctor About Incontinence

Every day people are transported in air ambulances for both emergency and non-emergency reasons. Often a medical flight is simply a way to transport a patient from one medical facility to another, perhaps in a different state or even country. Perhaps a patient needs the attention of a physician trained in a medical specialty that is not available where they live. On the other hand, medical flights are also used for patients who are critically ill and whose very life depends on being transported from a rural hospital to a life-saving trauma center --- even though it may be several hundred miles away.

Even though the reasons for the medical flights may vary, whenever someone needs air transportation for medical reasons the plane should be properly equipped with the right medical flight equipment as well as properly trained medical personnel.

But how do you go about choosing an air ambulance service? You might start by looking at the reputations of several different services. Companies with outstanding reputations will always have modern airplanes, skilled professional medical personnel, and up-to-date life saving medical equipment on board every flight.

Let's focus first of all on the medical personnel who are on board. A good air medical service should come with a skilled team of qualified medical personnel, including doctors, paramedics and nurses. Realizing that emergencies may take place during the flight, these professionals are in charge of the patient's well being every step along the way. They should have all of the required certifications for safe medical air transport. In addition, they should regularly attend certified educational courses in order to keep current with the latest procedures in this highly specialized field.

Even though the majority of medical flights may not be for true medical emergencies, the planes should be up-to-date, the staff fully trained, and the medical flight equipment the most modern available.

After all, each flight presents a patient with unique needs. Some patients may only need to be kept warm and comfortable during their flight. Others, however, may require life saving equipment to be pressed into service while they are in the air.

What type of aircraft is best suited for medical transportation? It really depends on the location and duration of the flight. Many air ambulance services use small jets, such as Lear jets. But turboprop and twin engine airplanes can also be used quite adequately.

Before an assignment of aircraft is made, a trained coordinator should make the determination based upon the distance of the flight, the size of the nearest airport, and his or her knowledge of the city of destination. The goal is to arrive at the final destination with as little stress and disturbance to the patient as possible. It is important that the company you choose has the right medical equipment to best fill the needs of each patient.

By the way, a really good air ambulance service should be able to fly both within its national boundaries as well as to international destinations. They should view the patient and accompanying family members as welcome guests. They should show the patient and his or her family the same care as if they were their own personal family members.

What type of medical flight equipment should be included on an air ambulance flight? Let's review some of the standard equipment that may prove to be life saving whenever a patient is being transported on a medical flight.

More than half of all medical flights take place during non-daylight hours. Therefore crews should be equipped with enhanced night vision goggles that will permit them to see and recognize any and all obstacles that may be in their path on the ground both before takeoff and after landing.

Special monitors that are designed to read and diagnose the vital signs of a patient are critical for air ambulances. Many monitors have been specifically designed for use on medical transport flights. Without going into a lot of scientific jargon, air pressure at varying altitudes can affect monitors. Therefore it is essential that the monitors used on board are designed for use on air ambulances.

An Isolette® incubator is designed for infants who are critically ill. These can monitor the baby's vital signs, provide oxygen, and maintain a comfortable temperature, especially for premature babies, or neonates.

An i-STAT is a special hand-held blood analyzer that provides truly high quality analysis in real time. With an i-STAT on board the medical crew members will be able to perform extensive blood testing - and get the results immediately during the flight.

Ventilators are essential pieces of equipment. High quality ventilators can meet the needs of any patient and can be programmed to control the patient's breathing. Again, the equipment used on any medical flight should be designed for use at varying altitudes.

Many cardiac patients, as well as other patients who are critically ill, may require more than one IV line so that the medical staff can administer both fluids and life-saving medications. Infusion pumps are vitally important, therefore, on every medical flight. Patients who were once considered too ill to travel by air can now be safely transported. This is largely due to the advancements of the infusion pumps which are now used on medical flights.
Loss of bladder and/or bowel control may seem like an overwhelming problem to deal with. Many people who suffer from this problem, and caregivers for incontinent patients, find themselves frustrated with the many challenges this condition presents.

Despite the challenges, it is treatable problem which can at least be reduced and sometimes cured. With the right treatment options and management strategies, you can live a normal life without fear of incontinence. There is no need to "have to put up with" the challenges of incontinence, but changing things will take a proactive approach by the patient and the caregiver (if applicable).

An incontinence management plan can be highly effective in dealing with this problem.

The first step which needs to be taken when someone is having symptoms is to see their health care provider. Many times these symptoms have an underlying medical condition which will need to be treated as well. If only the symptoms are being addressed, it is less likely the severity of the incontinence won't be reduced. Your doctor can do a thorough examination and make an appropriate diagnosis about what kind of incontinence you have, and what the applicable treatment options and management strategies should and can be used to treat it.

Once you have seen a healthcare professional design a management strategy to help deal with and treat the condition. Today, there are many different treatment options which include but are not limited to: dietary changes, medications, Kegel exercises and biofeedback, physical therapy, and in severe cases surgery. Keep in mind incontinence is not a "one size fits all" problem. There will be specific treatments and management strategies for the type and severity of symptoms, and these distinctions should be kept in mind.

Next, determine how the applicable treatments will be administered. Goals can be set at this time, as well. These goals can include things like: keeping a voiding diary or working on bladder training. Many people find writing down their plan allows them to be more proactive in treating their symptoms and reducing the number of accidents. It will also allow the patient and the caregiver (if applicable), to see if progress is being made in treating the symptoms. The management plan is also a handy way to record if symptoms are getting better, staying the same, or even getting worse. All of which is helpful information for finding an option that works. Consider including record of doctor's visits and notes on what is discussed with your plan.

Treatment is one aspect, management is another. While seeking to solve the underlying causes, be sure to educate yourself on the options for treating symptoms and minimizing the impact on your daily life. There are many options for undergarments and other supplies to make life much easier. The wide range of absorbent products for incontinence help make managing it much more effective, comfortable, and discreet.
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Can A Chiropractor Help With Sports Injuries

I hadn't thought about therapy dogs until my husband was in rehabilitation. His aorta dissected and he had three operations. He suffered a spinal stroke during the third, 13-hour operation, and his legs no longer support him. My husband will spend the rest of his days in a wheelchair.

This news is heart-breaking and life-changing. How could I help him? While he was on the rehabilitation floor a therapy dog visited the patients. Everyone was interested in a sheep-herding dog. The owner described the dog's training, the food he ate, and said the dog understood his purpose.

"He changes the minute I walk to the door," she said. "He knows he is going to the hospital."

Since then, the idea of a therapy dog stayed in my mind. While these dogs are known as visiting pets and therapy pets, the preferred name is Animal Assisted Therapy, according to an article on the Dog Play website. The article, "Visiting Pets and Animal Assisted Therapy," describes the benefits of these dogs. The dogs can help to alleviate loneliness and depression and petting the dogs has been known to reduce blood pressure.

I mentioned the idea of a dog to my brother-in-law. "You need an older dog," he explained, "one that is calm." He is right. We don't have the time to train a puppy, though we're willing to love and care for an older dog. You may have come to a similar realization.

To find a dog start by visiting the US Service Dog Registry website. Dogs registered on this website are either service dogs, trained to perform specific tasks, or emotional support dog. A list of national therapy dogs is also available on the Internet. Rehabilitation staff may be able to give you some leads. You may decide to get a puppy and train him or her to be a therapy pooch.

"Therapy Dogs and Animal Assisted Therapy," an article on the website, tells how you can become a therapy team. You may participate in the AKC Canine Good Citizen Program and get certified. Once you and your canine are certified, contact official animal therapy organizations. Keep in mind that therapy dogs must meet certain criteria and are re-evaluated.

Some people told me to contact the city pound. In fact, the therapy dog on his current rehabilitation floor came from the pound. However, the dog wasn't trained and his owner is in the process of training him now. Most important, the dog you choose should be social and enjoy interacting with strangers.

One thing is sure: I'm not going to get a small lap dog. My husband is a big dog kind of person, so I'm looking into getting a Golden Retriever or Black Labrador. I'm still doing research and still observing my husband's progress. Time will tell whether a dog joins our family. Let's face it, sculpting a tighter, rounder; protruding hinder part is what every girl wants, and what every male is naturally drawn to by his internal instincts. Therefore what is the quickest way to achieve the goal to attain a bigger butt fast. There are top secrets listed below, from the proper diet of what to eat to lose weight or gain weight and a very simple natural exercise. Finally how certain super foods multiply your efforts by enhancing natural functions of the female anatomy for powerful results for a bigger derriere.

Take Your Diet Seriously

Changing your diet will help you take advantage of a nicer bottom that men adore, if it is your aim to be more appealing. Choosing the right foods will actually boost the natural process of proper estrogen levels which produces the womanly figure. Too much over eating at a sitting induces fat to cover what is naturally underneath and weakens the body in areas to droop and fall. Consequently we want more muscle in these areas and less fat, as only muscle can be shaped and fat cannot be shaped. Every ounce of fat cells you lose, betters your chance for that desired shape to appear naturally.

The other side of the equation is there are foods proven to increase your derriere (buttocks) size and improve its shape that drive men out of their ever-loving minds. When you are under your weight size, you need to gain to build and add to your physique. When overweight you need to lose to expose those hidden curves. Knowing what foods best serve your objective to lose or to gain, increases the buttocks and loses fat in areas that take away from the shapely sexy curves you are after.

Necessary Food Intake


Eating the right foods and not over eating will make or break your vision for increased proportion. On a cellular level amino acids are the major component as the building blocks for protein, and protein is the major factor in building muscle to give you a bigger butt fast. It is the small increments of muscle built on the butt that work together in holding it up, it also controls the round shape of your derriere, or the hinder part silhouette when viewed from an array of angles.

Foods that are rich in protein are soy protein, turkey breast, chicken breast, tuna, and a special note for lean beef. When lean beef is eaten, especially a T-bone steak almost immediately results happen, but this is only maintained with consistent overall activity. This activity means all aspects mentioned and what will be suggested for a steady plan of action that you will develop.


The foods rich in carbohydrates are what make the buttocks lean, added as the glue so to speak, or weight strengthened by protein built muscle. The carbohydrates help to maintain the desired muscle mass by not allowing the muscle tissue to be used as fuel. It is here the carbohydrates are burned as fuel to add the weight to be maintained by muscle, thus giving the butt the density and firmness it needs. This is a good list of carbohydrates for consummation starting with brown rice, sweet potatoes, red potatoes, whole wheat pasta, whole wheat bread, brand cereal and oatmeal to round off your diet.

The Vegetable Group

Finally the power of vegetables and fruits develop strength two ways, by producing antitoxins for a more healthy anatomy, also allows you eat as much as you like to lose fat, as there are no calories with this food group. The best of the bunch includes any green leafy foods, green beans, salads, grapefruits, apples, grapes, bananas, including blueberry and cranberries considered to be super foods high in antioxins. You can add to this category as most vegetables and fruits work well here for a variety.

Exercise and Add Super Natural Ingredients

Walking is an exercise we must continue, whether purposeful or in general. The fact is walking can be used to enhance a natural affect it has on our female anatomy. After a meal increase your walking around a block maybe two, or perhaps walk a mile a day or more when stronger. This speeds up our metabolism to distribute weight in the areas we want most, in our buttocks. No sleeping or sitting around for one hour after a heavy meal. When eating properly by using carbohydrates to add weight, protein to build muscle, and the vegetable group to lose unwanted fat, you will distribute weight proportionally to our derriere and silhouette. Walking will be the extra needed, plus the secret ingredients of adding some natural super foods to speed up your production within your female anatomy.

Natural Super-foods

Maca-root suppresses hunger pangs allowing longer times between eating, a great benefit for dieting. Maca-root limits bad estrogen and increases the level of free testosterone vital to building muscle, energy levels, while giving immediate shape due to less water retention.

Saw Palmetto encourages muscle growth, and increases estrogen production with a natural hormonal balancing effect.

Fenu Greek makes synthetic estrogen to increase helping to lose fat and gain strength through the exercise of increased walking, as it supports anabolic hormone. Fenugreek shifts the body from fat storage to increase energy storage. Another property of Fenugreek can load nutrients such as carnitine and creatine into the muscles in the place of carbohydrates, multiplying your weight building experience. We want the weight here whether over or under weight, as the buttocks is muscle we are building.

Dong Quai is a powerful Chinese tonic herb to balance estrogen levels and helps to normalize hormones that are imbalanced, while having an adaptogenic effect on the female hormonal system. Which means it takes away the stress of the body and mind.

Wild Yam balances hormones production and nourishes the liver and endocrine system. Wild yam contains diosgenin similar to the progesterone found in a woman's body. Which are decisive components or building blocks for the production and balance of the hormones cortisone and progesterone.

Rose Hips increases energy and stamina levels, in addition are fortitude in vitamin C, beta carotene, vitamin A, iron, and calcium. It is a rich source of bioflavonoids pectin, manganese, vitamin E, selenium, and B complex vitamins, which is a dissoluble form of fiber. This increase your body rich in vitamins and nutrients, but from a strong health prospective increases your health.

These super foods are the missing components working for you, that adds a considerable increase to your efforts from an internal aspect. This benefit could not possibly be achieved by eating, dieting and exercising alone to maximize your output, toward the goal of having a bigger butt fast. These super foods should be taken on a daily basis in one simple application. The top secrets given must be added as a new plan of action, to stop over eating and doing the things that defeat your goals and purpose, and you will see results happen very quickly.


The super foods listed above are all in one capsule to be taken 2-3 times a day for a bigger butt fast. My educational journey and health mission has lead to some of the best herbal solutions the body needs in truly a great number of physical conditions, from high blood, pregnancy, heart disease, cancer and weight gain for both men and women. Take a look first at this must see You-tube video to tell you more in under 3 minutes or for even greater details of a bigger butt fast [] click here. You will find the program of the proper diet, with protein, carbohydrates, the vegetable group and minimum increased walking listed above, is a proven method for your success, take a look for yourself.
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Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Slim Beauty Knot Understanding Origin, Uses, Advantage and Technique

The fishermen fraternity is familiar with a thousand types of knots. Each of these knots has a different purpose to serve and mastering all of them may seem like a daunting task. The slim beauty knot is also one amongst the many types of knots used by fishermen across the globe.

Understanding the Origin

Invented by Captain Tom Pierce in the 1970's, the slim beauty knot was introduced as an improvement over its predecessors and the regular jam knots that were being commonly used. Inspired from the regular clinch knot, the slim beauty knot turned out to be more durable and therefore had a higher load bearing capacity. Later on in 1993, Captain Simon Becker improved this mechanism to facilitate the job of fishermen in the season of tarpon fishing. Ever since the slim beauty knot has become one of the popular options for saltwater fishing.

What are the Advantages?

You may wonder what led to the invention of this knot if there were already so many types of knots that fishermen were using. Well, unlike its predecessors, the slim beauty knot had several advantages that made it so popular. First things first, this knot is easier to tie. Fishermen loved this advantage because it meant they could tie the knots faster without damaging their hands. Also, tying the slim beauty knots took lesser time which made it a preferred choice for fishermen especially during the peak season. Even landing and releasing the fish is faster as well as more efficient when using this knot. In fact, the best part about the slim beauty knot can be used to tie different things of different diameters.

How to Tie It?

Now that we have told you so much about this kind of knot, the next obvious stage is to figure out how to tie it. First things first, you have to tie a Double Overhand knot in the Tippet. Now, tighten the structure to form two loops and pass the main line through these two loops. Thereafter, wrap four turns around the tippet and then another four turns outside these turns. Trim the ends, lubricate the set-up, pull tight and your knot is ready! If you don't have any lubricating agent nearby, simply use a little bit of water to wet the knot. The wetting helps in strengthening the knot and increasing its overall durability. You can also seek guidance from video tutorials available on the internet. The revolutionizing of lighting by LED technology was a turning point in how lighting was viewed as an aesthetic accessory or a design area in itself. With the introduction of LED tape lighting, a whole new level of design and customization was achieved. The lighting industry, as a whole, has an extremely bright future indeed.

One of the newer innovations in LED Tape or Strip Lighting is the Pixel LED Tape. This is used in a wide array of current applications such as architectural, embellishments, live, outdoors, scenic etc. Research into pixel LED especially micro-pixel LED has greatly excited the scientific community as it is proving its capabilities in areas beyond conventional lighting.

The pixel LED tape scores high in areas where ordinary LED limits possibilities. In a tape lighting system each pixel has higher resolution and output, added to which is a silicone coating that allows outdoor lighting possible even in places that is likely to get wet by contact with water. With adhesive backing and availability in varying lengths, the pixel LED offers flexibility making it an ideal lighting accessory for integrating into stage lighting, signage lighting, prop lighting, and every other lighting requirement that cannot be met by standard lighting equipment.

Uses and options

The micro LED tape has become a trusted mainstay lighting option for studio, stage and TV setting worldwide. There are several variations to the pixel LED tape; one of which is using a number of small LED emitters creating linear forms in finer granularity that can be used to beam out pattern displays to large crowds of audience like sports events, music shows, product launches etc. It also serves effectively as backdrop reflector.
With a camera in your hand, you can capture the magnificence of the world in all its beauty and horror. You can show the ordinary in an extraordinary way, and you can highlight things in new and interesting ways. But first, you need to know how to use it properly. Enrolling in a photography school can be a great way to learn the techniques and methods you should know to appropriately capture each moment on film. In order to excel, and not just get through, your classes, here are 3 tips that you can incorporate into your studies:

Listen to Feedback

Classes are led by experienced professionals with impressive portfolios and lots of knowledge about how to capture various moments in the proper light. As you submit your photographs, talk to your professor. Ask him or her for feedback on the pictures. Know what techniques you're excelling in, and learn what ways you can improve. As you receive constructive criticism, don't let it get you down; instead, take the criticism as an opportunity to perfect your craft and challenge your abilities to get better and improve over time.

Practice Techniques

During your classes, you'll have the opportunity to read and hear lectures about various techniques that can be used. These ideas won't be very helpful unless you get out in the field and start putting them into action. Try to spend plenty of time out and about taking pictures. When you can, drive to the mountains, the beach, hiking trails, and other locations that can help you get different kinds of shots. As you learn new techniques, put in the time and energy into mastering that technique. You want it to become second nature to you, so you can find the perfect shot in the moment.

Collaborate with Students

When taking courses, one of the great things that you can get out of the experience is the opportunity to work with other individuals working to master their photography skills. Along with your professor, these individuals can be extremely beneficial in helping you to learn new things and discover new ways of doing things. Talk to your classmates, review their work, and ask them about how they created their photographs. If taking an on-site course, you may even want to get out in the field with your classmates to see them in action and collaborate on taking different shots with various angles, lighting, etc.

Use the experience to hone your camera skills by getting feedback from your professors, practicing techniques taught in class, and collaborating with other students. By the end of class, you'll have a portfolio of pictures that you can be proud of and skills that can help you go out into the world and find shots that will make people question what they thought they knew, wonder about the world around them, and be in awe of the beauty that you can convey.
What is the purpose of our life? Many of us think that the purpose of life is to accumulate wealth, because money can fetch you everything including happiness. Wealth is an important determinant of people's satisfaction with their lives, but it is far less important than most people think. Happiness depends on other factors more than it depends on wealth. Some people think that the purpose is to live an intelligent life. Others think that it is to live a happy life. Yet, others believe that a combination of wealth, happiness, and intelligent life, in some proportion, is the purpose of life. Once people believed that the Earth was the centre of the universe. That intelligence was an illusion. Our intelligence is a random chance of variations and mutations occurred due to several factors such as geographical isolation, use and disuse, climatic conditions, etc. Natural selection does not work towards creating intelligent life. Our ancestor may be a microbe. It could be an amoeba. Some of our body cells behave like an amoeba. Some kinds of white blood cells kill bacteria by surrounding and digesting them. The white blood cells do not wait for our command but they automatically work for our happiness. Whether our human body is a network of many micro organisms? Do microbes rule this planet? People who want to live a happy life are not always happy. Our mind is not completely freed from worries. Happiness is a state of mind. It is difficult to equate happiness of one person with another. But it is one thing that everybody strives for. If we look at the history of human beings who developed from human like creatures, we will be able to get an idea of the purpose for which they lived.

In the beginning, people didn't have even the faintest idea of wealth. When they got excess food they didn't know how to preserve it. When they didn't get any food they simply starved. Scientists who study prehistoric human beings believe that they developed from humanlike creatures that first lived more than 4 million years ago. The first human beings probably lived about 2 million years ago.These early people looked more and more like modern people. By about 130,000 B.C., some prehistoric people looked much like people of today. Because early people kept no written records, scientists search for bones, tools, and other prehistoric remains. Most of the tools that have been found and studied are made of stone. As a result, the entire period during which early people lived has been called the Stone Age. People lived entirely by hunting and by gathering wild plants for almost all of the Stone Age's 2 million years. The period from the time the first human beings appeared until about 8000 B.C., when the farming way of life began, is called the Old Stone Age or Palaeolithic Period. Prehistoric hunters lived in groups of 25 to 50 people and moved from place to place in search of food. At first, early people hunted mostly small animals, including birds and small reptiles. About 1.5 million years ago, some hunters developed the methods and weapons needed to kill or capture larger game. Prehistoric people's first stone tools, called pebble tools, were small stones with sharpened edge on one side. They may have been the only stone tools until about 1.5 million years age. Then people in the eastern part of Asia and eastern part of Europe began to make two kinds of tools called chopping tools and choppers. At the same time, people in western part of Europe, most of Africa, and parts of western Asia began to make hand axes. Prehistoric people probably cooked some food. Before they knew how to make fire, they took burning wood from fires that had started naturally. People learned how to make fire about 1.5 million years ago.

About 200,000 years ago, most groups of people began making special tools for such different tasks as cutting, chopping, and scraping. Later in the Palaeolithic Period, after about 40,000 B.C., many people shaped long, thin blades of stone. They used these blades as tools, and they also made blades into knives and spear points. Throughout most of the Palaeolithic Period, few stone tools were used as weapons. People hunted and defended themselves chiefly with rocks, wooden clubs, and sharp-pointed bones and wooden spears. By about 18,000 B.C., people invented the bow and arrow and the spear thrower, a kind of launching track that helped a hunter throw a spear with increased range, force, and accuracy.

At some point of time they learned the efficiency of division of labour. Stone Age hunting groups performed a variety of jobs, from tool-making to butchering an animal. We do not know exactly when the first economy set in motion. Scientists estimate that only a few thousand people lived in all of Africa, and a similar number in Asia, during early prehistoric times. Although a group moved from place to place, it probably stayed within familiar territory and seldom met another group. Probably the occasional contact with a friendly neighbour could have been the starting point. Either they gave the surplus food to their neighbour free or in exchange of something like tools or different kind of food. Thus a rudimentary form of barter economy started. The tool maker didn't need to go for hunting because tool making required a lot of time, skill, and energy. The specialised skill of tool making gave the tool maker happiness. The tool maker could avoid the risk faced by the hunters. The tools made the hunters efficient and efficiency produced surplus food. On the one hand the tool making skill made the people efficient and on the other hand the application of the skill created new products. Tool making, therefore, definitely helped the barter economy to set in motion. In time, they learned many things such as domestication of animals, agriculture, settled life, and the use of metals such as bronze, iron, gold, silver, copper, tin, etc.

Early farmers used several tools invented between 15,000 B.C. and 9000 B.C., during the period of the first domestication. These tools included sickles to cut grain, grinding stones to grind grain into flour, and axe like implements called celts. By about 11,000 B.C., people had invented how to make pottery. The earthen pots were used to cook food as well as to store food grains. The first farmers were people who depended chiefly on farming for food even though they hunted, and gathered wild plants. Scientists believe the first farmers lived in what are now Israel and Jordan about 8000 B.C. and in south-western Iran a few hundred years later. By 6000 B.C., agriculture had spread from the Middle East to the Greek Peninsula. Bronze Age was the period when people used bronze for tools and weapons. It followed the Stone Age, when stone was the chief material. When iron tools became widespread, the Bronze Age ended and the Iron Age began. The earliest known use of bronze occurred in Sumer, in Mesopotamia (now south western Iraq), about 3500 B.C. The Chinese had begun to use bronze by 2000 B.C. People continued to use bronze until sometime between 1500 and 1000 B.C. Then iron, which first appeared in Asia Minor, became common.

Now people had many products to exchange in the market of barter economy. But they had a big problem. In the barter economy, people found difficulty in fixing the value of the goods to be exchanged. The tool maker probably produced tools made of metals which can be exchanged for different goods. Many historians believe that the Chinese at first used knives, spades, and other metal tools as medium of exchange. Around 1100 B.C., they began to use miniature bronze tools instead of real tools. In time, the little tools developed into coins. The first minted coins may have been made during the 600's B.C., in Lydia, a country in the western part of Turkey. They were bean shaped and made of gold and silver. These coins had a stamped design which carried a uniform value guaranteed by the King of Lydia. The development of paper money began in China, probably during the A.D. 600's.

The invention of minted coins and paper money helped people to store their surplus production in a convenient form. The storing of surplus production helped the people to sail through the bad times smoothly. So it seems that wealth is good as long as bad times are anticipated. Wealth provides you security and happiness in life. But how much is wealth good? The more you are wealthy the more you are secured and happy. What if everybody produces surplus goods? For example, in our hunter-tool maker society, if the hunters had brought excess food but not wanted fresh tools then the tool maker would have been at the mercy of the hunters for food. This situation would have created a perpetual problem to the tool maker unless the tool maker had not parted with the ownership of the tools. The tool maker must have merely lent the tools in order to legitimately claim the share of food. Whether this thought of lending had occurred to the tool maker or not, that must have been the practical solution. This hunters' dependency on tools on each occasion they went for hunting would have solved the tool maker's perpetual problem. Everybody would be happy. As long as the tools were in good condition the tool maker would get food and there was no need to produce surplus tools. That is, if there had been no other needs other than food, the tool maker would not have produced surplus tools. But things were not like that. The friendly neighbours also wanted the tool. Assured of daily food, the tool maker had no incentive to produce tools for the neighbours. This might have made the neighbours to find something to motivate the tool maker to oblige. The neighbours might have offered the tool maker something they considered valuable. The tool maker accepted the offer and the friendly neighbours got the tool they wanted. Now the tool maker was happier and so the friendly neighbours. So the surplus production was good, provided it could be exchanged for some other needs. Thus, in due course, humans invented new needs. As more needs were invented, people created surplus production.

As the population and the needs of the people increased, a propensity to produce surplus modified the behaviour of the people. Some people still continued to go for hunting, some practised agriculture, and some produced tools and other utilities for trade. These three groups exchanged their goods. That implies that each group produced goods for their own use and for others. All the goods that are produced for the use of others can't be considered as surplus because some of these goods are exchanged for their own needs. The goods that are left after the fulfilment of all needs can be considered as surplus. The food grain cultivator could store the product for longer time than the hunter could. Therefore, the food grain cultivator had an advantage over the hunter; and the tool maker had an advantage over the other two. This situation could have created some kind of primitive bargaining power. In due course, the issue must have been settled. When the hunters got a good field day they might have conceived the idea of storing the excess in the form of food grains. The tool maker by merely lending the tools was assured of food and other needs. Some kind of equilibrium could be seen in their economy. The things which could be stored for longer time and could be exchanged for other goods were valued much. Naturally, the tools were considered most valuable. The tool maker now produced tools of different sizes according to the value of goods exchanged. Thus the Chinese used the tools made of metals as a medium of exchange. Now everybody could produce surplus and store it in the form of metal tools which would be exchanged for anything they required in the future. Surplus production is nothing but the excess of energy produced over the energy consumed; the excess energy is converted into a medium of exchange. As more and more people demanded, the tool maker continued to produce the tools provided the raw materials to make the tools were available. So everybody could produce surplus. When everybody produced surplus goods, the tool maker encountered with new problems. The tool maker could not produce enough tools to meet the demand of the people. Secondly, all the surplus goods reached the tool maker which the tool maker didn't require. Either the tool maker restricted the economy or more people were employed to make tools. The tool maker distributed part of the goods to the employees and probably exported the remaining goods to the friendly neighbours in exchange for raw materials for the tools and other valuable goods. Internal and external trade was brisk; people were happy. So wealth was created and stored.

So far we have seen only the rosy picture of the history of ancient people. Imagine that the tool maker refused to give the tool to the friendly neighbours or a hostile group wanted to acquire the specialised tools made by the tool maker, and the neighbours opted to wage a war against the tool maker and the people. Many of them, on both sides, must have been killed. The mightier side would have won the battle; the other people might have been subjected or driven to distant place. The aftermath of the battle would give different paths for the history of humans to take its course. Though such an event was undesirable, it was not improbable. Why was one group of people hostile towards the other group?

For hundreds of thousands of years, prehistoric people lived by hunting, fishing and gathering wild plants. Even small groups of people had to roam over large areas of land to find enough food. The discovery of agriculture gradually ended the nomadic way of life for many people. After they learned to raise crops and domesticate animals, they no longer had to wander about in search of food. They could thus begin to settle in villages. By about 3500 B.C., civilization began. It stated first in Southwest Asia. Three other early civilizations developed in Africa and in south and east of Asia. All these civilizations arose in river valleys, where fertile soil and a readily available water supply made agriculture easier than elsewhere. The valleys were (1) the Tigris-Euphrates Valley in the Middle East, (2) the Nile Valley in Egypt, (3) the Indus Valley in Pakistan, and (4) the Huang He Valley in northern China. While civilization was developing in the four valleys, people in most other parts of the world were still following their old ways of life.

By the 5000 B.C., many people had settled in villages in the lower part of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley, an area later called Sumer. By about 3500 B.C., some farm villages had grown into small cities, which marked the beginning of the world's first civilization. They invented the first form of writing; it consisted of picture like symbols scratched in to clay. The symbols were later simplified to produce cuneiform. The Sumerians used baked bricks to build great palaces and towering temples called ziggurats in their cities. The Sumerians invented the potter's wheel. Their system of counting in units of 60 is the basis of the 360-degree circle and the 60-minute hour. The Sumerian city-states had no central government or unified army and continually struggled among themselves for power. As time passed, they were increasingly threatened by neighbouring Semitic peoples, who were attracted by the growing wealth of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. During the 2300's B.C., a Semitic king, Sargon of Akkad, conquered Sumer. Their rule lasted more than 60 years. Then invaders from the northeast overran the empire. These invaders soon left Mesopotamia, and Sumer was once again divided into separate city-states. By about 2000 B.C., the Sumerians had completely lost all political power to invading Semites. Mesopotamia then broke up into a number of small kingdoms under various Semitic rulers. The city of Babylon became the centre of one kingdom. The greatest Babylonian king was Hammurabi, who ruled from about 1792 to 1750 B.C. In Syria in the 2000 B.C., a powerful Semitic kingdom called Ebla grew up in northern Syria. Its economy was based upon the making of metal products and textiles and it traded with many states. Other states paid tribute (taxes) to Ebla.

The civilization of ancient Egypt began to develop in the valley of the Nile River about 3100 B.C. Agriculture flourished in the valley, where the flood waters of the Nile deposited rich soil year after year. During 3000's B.C., Egypt consisted of two large kingdoms. Lower Egypt covered the Nile Delta. Upper Egypt lay south of the delta on the two banks of the river. About 3100 B.C., according to legend, King Menes of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and united the two kingdoms. Menes also founded the first Egyptian dynasty. They invented their own form of writing - an elaborate system of symbols known as hieroglyphics. They also invented papyrus, a paper- like material made from the stems of reeds. The Egyptians built great tombs and mummified corpses to preserve them. The most famous Egyptian tombs are gigantic pyramids in which the kings were buried. Over the years, huge armies of conquering Egyptians expanded the kingdom's boundaries far beyond the Nile Valley. At its height in the 1400's B.C., Egypt ruled Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, and part of the Sudan. As a powerful state at the junction of Asia and Africa, Egypt played an important role in the growth of long distance trade. Although the ancient Egyptians had contacts with other cultures, their way of life changed little over thousands of years. Their civilization gradually declined, and the Egyptians found it harder and harder to resist invaders who had greater vigour and better weapons. Egyptian records from the 1200's and 1100's B.C. describe constant attacks by 'sea peoples'. These peoples may have come from islands in the Aegean Sea or from lands along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. After 1000 B.C., power struggles between rival Egyptian dynasties further weakened the kingdom.

Historians have only partly translated the writings left behind by the ancient civilization that arose in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries. The ruins of two large cities -Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa - tell much about the Indus Valley civilization. The remains of hundreds of small settlements have also been discovered in the valley. Some of these settlements were farming villages, and others were sea-ports and trading posts. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa probably had more than 35,000 inhabitants each by about 2500 B.C. They had a well-developed system of agriculture that provided food for the large population. They dug ditches and canals to irrigate their farms. The Indus cities had brick buildings and well-planned streets laid out in rectangular patterns. Elaborate brick-lined drainage systems provided sanitation for the towns. Archaeologists have discovered that standardized sizes of bricks and uniform weights and measures were used throughout the Indus Valley. The Indus settlements traded with one another and with foreign cultures. Traces of seals used on goods from the Indus Valley have been found as far away as Mesopotamia. The Indus people probably also traded with people of central Asia, southern India, and Persia. Between 2000 and 1750 B.C., the Indus Valley civilization began to decay. Scholars do not know why this process of decay took place. By about 1700 B.C., the Indus Valley civilization had disappeared.

The earliest written records of Chinese history date from the Shang dynasty, which arose in the valley of the Huang He during the 1700's B.C. The records consist largely of writings scratched on animal bones and turtle shells. The bones and shells are known as oracle bones. Shang people had more than 3,000 characters. Some characters on the oracle bones resemble modern Chinese characters. Little remains of the cities of the Shang period. Most of the buildings were made of mud or wood and have long since crumbled away. The people of the Shang period cast beautiful bronze vessels. They also carved marble and jade and wove silk. The Shang people were governed by a king and a hereditary class of aristocrats. The Shang leaders organized armies of as many as 5,000 men and equipped them with bronze weapons and horse-drawn war chariots. They used their armies to control the other peoples of the Huang He Valley. They ruled much of the valley for about 600 years.

From about 1200 B.C. to A.D. 500, Mesopotamia and Egypt were increasingly affected by the gradual growth of a new civilization on the islands and shores of the Aegean Sea. The most magnificent civilization of ancient times-that of the Greeks-eventually developed in the Aegean region. For a time, the Greeks dominated much of the ancient world. Later, the lands of the Greeks, as well as Mesopotamia and Egypt, became part of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire covered much of Europe and the Middle East, and the north coast of Africa. The Han dynasty of China ruled a large empire from 202 B.C. to A.D. 220. The Gupta dynasty of India ruled a large empire from A.D. 320 to 500.

The invention of agriculture by the prehistoric people during 15,000 B.C. to 9000 B.C. was a boon as well as a bane. Once they learned crop rising, they had plenty of food. During the same period they also mastered domestication of animals. Now people depended less on hunting. Without hunting, they could survive on agricultural products and domesticated animals. The tool maker now required to work on agricultural equipments and produced less of hunting weapons. Gradually, they settled their life near a river where water for irrigation was available throughout the year. Elsewhere, people continued to live the nomadic way. Their tool maker continued to make great weapons for hunting. As they moved from place to place, they would have met the people settled in villages. The village people had led a prosperous life with plenty of food and domesticated animals. The nomadic people saw what they wanted, the animals. One fine day, the nomadic people attacked the villagers. It was easier for them to conquer the villagers who didn't have enough weapons to counter-attack the enemy. The villagers' peaceful settled life became a curse. This could have really happened in the prehistoric period. Even the people of ancient civilizations were constantly threatened by the marauding people living in the periphery. One of the causes for the decline of ancient civilizations was the continued attack of these marauding people. These people changed the course of history of humans.

Prehistoric people lived in a world quite different from present day. They first appeared about 2 million years ago, at a time when the earth has grown cold. Glaciers were gradually covering parts of the northern continents, and ice blanketed all of Antarctica. Only Africa, south-eastern Asia, and most of Central and South America remained warm. The first human beings appeared in Africa during this period. The climate had become so cold in Canada and Scandinavia that more and more snow fell in winter than could melt in summer. The ice sheets grew and spread southward during periods called glacial. Each of these periods probably lasted about 100,000 years. Near the end of each glacial, the earth became warmer, and the southern parts of the ice sheets melted. These warmer periods, called interglacial, probably lasted only about 10,000 years. In the glacial and interglacial periods, early people settled almost all of Africa, southern Asia, and southern Europe, and also part of Australia. Every time the ice sheets grew, they turned large amounts of ocean water into ice. As a result, the level of sea fell. This lowering of the sea level uncovered new land for settlement. It also created land bridges that connected regions ordinarily separated by water. One of these land bridges linked Siberia with Alaska. Others connected the European mainland with Great Britain, and the Malay Peninsula with the Indonesian islands. Prehistoric people travelled over these bridges to settle new lands. The ice sheets melted during the interglacial period raised the sea level again and covered the land bridges. This must have separated the prehistoric people into different groups for hundreds of years. Each group must have developed different life styles according to the conditions of life on different geographical regions. Over a period of time, each group had forgotten the link with the other groups. Later, when they encountered the other group, they were treated as aliens. Hostile feeling developed because of geographical isolation which separated one group from another. If Ice age theory is correct then nature might have created this feeling. This feeling must have driven the marauding people to attack other people to secure their food. Nature has given us many good things as well as some bad things.

The primary concern of any organism is food. Protozoan is one-celled organism that may have plant-like or animal-like characteristics. Many scientists group protozoa as neither animals nor plants. The amoeba is one of the simplest protozoa. It is a tiny one-celled organism that can only be seen under a microscope. Some amoeba lives in water and moist soil. Others live in the bodies of animals and human beings. The cell is a shapeless mass of protoplasm, the living, jelly-like material found in the cells of all living things. A thin, elastic membrane surrounds the protoplasm and holds together. Water and gases pass in and out of the amoeba through the membrane. The single cell that makes up its body carries on all the necessary life processes by itself. The cell eats, breathes, and responds to its surroundings. To move about, an amoeba must change its body shape. The protoplasm pushes out the elastic membrane to form a finger-like pseudo pod (false foot), and all of the protoplasm seems to flow into it. For every 'step', another pseudo pod must form. Cells that move in this way are called amoeboid cells. The white blood cells of human beings are amoeboid cells. Amoebas eat tiny living organisms and particles of dead and decaying matter. They engulf their food by slowly wrapping pseudo pods around a food particle. They reproduce by fission (splitting apart) when they reach a certain size. Many protozoa are serious enemies of human beings and animals. Malaria and African sleeping sickness are among the diseases they cause. Who did program the actions of the amoeba? The single celled organism has got some intelligence to find its food. The single cell carries out all necessary life processes by itself. It has survived the severe climatic conditions of the planet for millions of years. There are certain life-forms (extremophiles) capable of surviving in extreme conditions (very cold or hot, very acidic or/and radioactive, no oxygen, etc.). The extremophiles learned to survive the severest conditions on earth just in order to get food. Why do they struggle to eat and survive? Do they have any purpose of their struggle for existence? Is life worth for such struggles? But life continues on earth and it will continue for some 6 billion years more. We are not at the peak of evolution. After a million years, we may not look like what we are today; we may not even exist on this planet. Some other species may be dominating the earth.

Who are we? What do we do on earth? Because we want more living space, we encroach upon the habitat of the plants and animals without knowing the consequences. By the time we understand the consequences, it will be too late to reverse it. We are actually becoming weaker and weaker. We are weaker than the microbes. We can't survive the severe climatic conditions on earth. Our babies depend on parents for several years. In certain Asian countries, the children depend upon their parents even after marriage. Most of the animals can just get up and walk on birth, which our babies can't. To hide our weakness we invent machines to support us. One day the machines will rule the planet; it is not improbable, considering the way we are empowering the machines. In the evolutionary process, a mutation can decide which species would dominate the planet. In the scientific process, a human error may destroy the whole universe. Such human errors are more harmful than the bad things occasionally unleashed by nature. We continue to have the mind of the people who attacked and brought down the history's finest civilizations. At the slightest provocation we unleash weapons of mass destruction. We focus too much on accumulating wealth that we conveniently forget the living conditions of the poor. There is no limit for our greed; we engineer new financial instruments in the false impression that they would create wealth forever. Our enthusiasm to get quick money is too much that we forget the fundamentals. Once we accumulate wealth we waste a lot of resources in the name of consumption. A few of us consume the major chunk of the natural resources and leave a wee bit to the majority of the population. We have learnt very less from the lessons of the past.

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Tuesday, May 14, 2019

Does The Attire of A Teacher Have Any Impact With The Teaching

Al Mighty Allah has created limited people who achieved good names due to their good manners and deeds. Sheikh Saadi is one of those people who executed numerous heroic acts in his life and achieved good name in this world. The people always take benefits from his good deeds and heroic acts. When King ILKHANI assaulted Iran and put the houses of Iranian on fire, destroyed mosques, schools/ colleges and burned libraries/ literature. Moreover, ILKHANI also killed eminent and scholars brutally. In that days, Allah has blessed Iranian people with Sheikh Saadi (R.A).

Ashraf Ud Din Mosleh Ud Din Saadi was born in Shiraz town of Iran. His exact date of birth is not known, however, the modern history writers of Iran says that Saadi was born in 1184 AD and died in between 691 to 694 AH. His father was an official with Governor of Shiraz. The historian says that Sheikh Saadi has spent his life in four parts. Sheikh Saadi studied for 30 years, then he travelled the world for 30 years, then he spent 30 years in writing of books and poetry and the remaining life was spent in recluse and theosophy. He served his people socially through his books and publications.

Primary and Higher Education of Sheikh Saadi.

Sheikh Saadi belongs to a well-read family of Shiraz who were famous for of their knowledge. He took his early education from his father. Unfortunately, his father passed away in his childhood and he could not continue study with him.

Sheikh Saadi got higher education from the renowned and famous teachers of Shiraz after the death of his father. He travelled towards Baghdad for further education and took higher education from Sheikh Shahab Ud Din Saharwardi,

Journey of Sheikh Saadi.

Sheikh Saadi left Baghdad when he realized that the ruthless and brutal King Halako Khan has destroyed the Islamic state of Baghdad with his brutal acts. He travelled towards Syria, Palestine, Makkah, Madina (KSA), Asia and Northern Africa. He performed fourteen Hajj during his journey. Some of the stories of BOSTAN reveals that he also visited Turkistan and Hindustan. An English Historian writes that Saadi is the second biggest tourist of the East after Ibn-e-Batota. He faced problems during his various trips. Once, Saadi become angry with the people of Damascus. He left Damascus and went towards the deserts of Palestine where Christians arrest him and put in prison with Jewish prisoners. Saadi tackled all the problems of life with courage and bravery. He never complained of his problem.

Sheikh Saadi was expressive and fluent in explaining his expressions. He always used fluent, expressive and emphasized words in his prose and poetry which effects on the heart of readers. Saadi explained his problems in a better way for guidance of followers and readers. He always remained thankful to Al-Mighty Allah and advised fellows to become patient during stress and strain conditions.

Love with Native Town.

Saadi loved his native homeland very much which reflects in his poetry. He left his native town Shiraz on account of cruelly rule of Muzafar Uddin Saad bin Zangi and worse law and order situation. He returned to his native town after a long time when Saad bin Zangi died and his son Muzafar Uddin Abu Bakar bin Abu Saad bin Zangi took over the charge of kingdom in 1236 AH. Muzafar Uddin Abu Bakar compromised with TATARIAN tribe for peace. In this way, he success in peace keeping in Persia and saved his people from mass destruction.

Tendency towards Sufism.

Sheikh Saadi was very talented scholar himself and liked scholars in general and religious scholars in particular. Despite of his epistemic abilities and qualities, he was impressed from Sufi and adopted Sufism. Saadi used his prose and poetry for constrictive and ameliorative works of public. He guided leaders, kings and rulers through his poetry. Ali bin Ahmad is a renowned religious scholar (who formulated/ gathered Kulayat-e-Saadi) says that Sheikh Saadi was very brave and courageous. He further narrated that Saadi has expressed and communicated his view in a courageous way to everyone, including rulers of his time. Saadi was very talented from childhood. He was popular among the people on account of his sincerity. He was respected by all on account of good manners and positive attitude.
The attire a person puts on paints the first impression of his or her behavior to outsiders. Whether it is the true picture of the person's innate character or otherwise, the dress one adorns himself or herself speaks a thousand words of his/her makeup. That is why everyone needs to pay close attention to the way s/he presents himself outwardly to onlookers. Teachers in educational institutions have recently been criticized for wearing unkempt dresses to undertake their responsibilities. This has sparked a lot of debate on whether the kind of attire a teacher puts on have any impact on the dispensation of the teaching and learning activities. It has been a popular theme for deliberations amongst scholars in the field of education, concerned agencies in charge of the moral upbringing of the youth and parents.

Teachers are models and exemplars in educational institutions. Students usually look up to them and the influence they wield on their moral development cannot be underestimated. This underscores why many students label some of their exemplary teachers as their life mentors. Therefore, due to the huge and influential position they occupy in their school's society, they must be cautious of the marks that they constantly create with their attitudes and demeanor. One keen area is their attire. Teachers must wear decent, neat and appropriate dresses that beautifully illustrate their profession. As shapers of morals, teachers must be able to part moral training via their dresses.

It is said that the entire learning experience of students includes both the teachable and non-teachable aspects of the curriculum. Thus, the non-teachable components of the teaching and learning processes carried out through observations must equally be given much attention like the teachable components. Dressing is an example of the non-teachable component which is constantly being observed by students. Many of these inexperienced students set their criteria or judgment of appropriate and inappropriate mode of dressing using their teachers' own as yardsticks. Owing to this, if teachers whom the students have vested their trust and respect wear shoddy clothes, it would blur and/or stain the vision of judgment regarding well-mannered and unaccepted mode of dressing. Therefore, it is a must that teachers set good standards regarding clothing.

Decent dresses worn by teachers connote respect for their clients, herein, students, the parents of the students and the government who offered them the employment. It sends a great signal to the general public about the teaching profession. Sloppy dresses worn by teachers would bring disrepute to their profession and people would even look mean at them. However, the teaching profession is noble and of great repute. Therefore, teachers must wear good and appropriate dresses when attending to their teaching and learning responsibilities in their respective educational institutions.

Of course, cultures vary amongst societies and countries, yet, the standard for appropriate and acceptable dressing has always been clear. Teachers must desist from casual dresses such as Round neck T-shirts with unscrupulous labeling, dirty clothes, revealing and tight clothes, unbridled make-ups such as manicure and pedicure, mini-skirts and other forms of dresses that rub the reputation of the teaching profession in the mud.

Good, decent and appropriate dresses even protect teachers from disturbing and unfortunate instances. There are many reports of female teachers who have been sexually abused by some members of the general public and their own male students due to the slapdash dressing that stirs up the sexual desires of onlookers. Also, some male teachers have been wrongly accused, their images tainted and labeled as rapists, thieves and so forth because of their clumsy dresses.

Indeed, the attire worn by teachers exerts great impacts on the teaching and learning services they offer in educational institutions by dictating the taste of students regarding dresses. Moreover, it shields them from wrong image labeling and other unfortunate instances. As beacons of light in educational institutions, teachers must offer the non-teachable aspects of the curriculum, of which dressing is an iconic figure, with decency and respect for students to emulate. Educational bodies must set standards of prescribed or accepted mode of dressing to guide the choice of attire of teachers. When the mode of dressing of teachers is censored and monitored it would result in the attainment of good learning outcomes. It would lead to the good development of the moral fibers of the feeble and inexperienced students in the millions of educational institutions globally. Doubt means we are thinking something through. We are grappling with it. We are trying to process and understand it. Doubting is not necessarily sinful. Unbelief is an act of the will, while doubt is born out of a troubled mind and a broken heart. And even the great apostle Paul was discouraged. He wrote about it in 2 Corinthians 1:8: "For we do not want you to be ignorant, brethren, of our trouble which came to us in Asia: that we were burdened beyond measure, above strength, so that we despaired even of life." So if you are struggling with doubts, you are not alone.

Likewise, people sometimes describe a doubting posture as a scientific attitude. However, whereas most working scientists will not be embarrassed about their skeptical attitude, indeed may even vaunt their questioning modes in many contexts, religious thinkers, especially as theologians, tend to underplay the faith component in their religion, arguing instead that there are logical and rational modes by which faith can be justified.

In fact, there is a respectable branch of theology, called apologetics, whose avowed purpose is to defend the doctrines and dogmas of a religion on the basis of reason and rationality, either to combat opposing and dissenting these, or for persuading uncommitted souls to join a particular faith community.

We board a plane, trusting the pilot's skill and sobriety. This is essentially what we call trust. In many instances, we simply don't have a choice. Nothing happens all by itself, i.e. every observed event has a cause. Yet, the scientific enterprise accepts them as true. These too fall under the category of faith.

People who take note of deaths from natural disasters and unanswered fervent prayers may find it difficult to accept this assertion. However, we must understand here that in the scientific realm seeing refers to all the convincing data one can get through the sensory faculties, and through reason; whereas in religion it means recognition through intuition and deep conviction.

Some have suspected that it is due to some genetic coding. Conversely, ardent religionists have analyzed the mindset of unbelievers. Their explanations are often quite simple: The deluded unbelievers have succumbed, they say, to the temptation of the devil or have fallen under the spell of some evil spirit; that the poor creatures haven't yet received the Grace of God, or that the inability to sing God's glories is a consequence of evil deeds perpetrated in past births.

Many positive things have arisen in human history by belief as well as by doubt, that there have been great scientists and thinkers who have been men and women of deep faith, and many horrible acts have been committed in the name of Faith.

Quite the contrary effects have resulted in these cases.It does not seem to occur to either group that essentially they both share certain common features: Both are convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that their own understanding of whatever may or may not lie beyond the world of perceived reality is the right one, that there is an implicit arrogance in their attempts to analyze and explain the innermost beliefs of the opposite group, that if one is obsessed with explaining everything, the other mistakes experiences of hopes, ecstasies, and transcendental visions with physical reality.

These are people who unsympathetically reject outright all the religious narratives about the distant past or its prognostications about what is to come in the very distant future, let alone about God and angels and such.

In matters of the intellect, follow your reason as far as it will take you, without regard to any consideration. Do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated or demonstrable. Corporal punishment for wrong doing, however unfortunate, is understandable. But to burn fellow beings on the stake, sever their heads or maim their bodies because they had different notions of what constitutes God or afterlife, the executors not having the slightest evidence as the incontrovertible correctness of their own contentions: this is incredible to those who have advanced somewhat from medieval mentality.

A concluding thought, as along as skeptical unbelievers who tend to think they are the only scientifically enlightened members of the human family, regard traditional believers as misguided, irrational, and worse, there really can't be a healthy dialogue between science and religion.

We risk something essential when we put our faith in it. We risk ourselves. Welcoming doubt into my faith lets me experience again the magnitude of Christ's gift, invites me to say again, "My Lord, and my God," and demands that I risk it all again, allowing myself to be made over in the image of Christ.
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Monday, May 13, 2019

The Importance of Parent-Teacher Partnership and Collaboration

Nowadays, schools and home seem to be in a constant argument about whose responsibility the child's behavior is. In as much as values are first learned in the home; educators should not discount that the students spend more of their most active hours in school. Hence, the school values have great impact on the students too. It is a two-way street nurturing the student. The responsibility of children's behavior is a partnership and a collaboration between parents and school.

Parents have a unique contribution to make in their children's schooling. They have a different idea of the child than that of the teachers'. The parents know the child's history: physical, medical and social. They know the role the child plays in their home. The parents have knowledge of the significant person the child interacts with. They also have foremost idea on what makes the child happy or sad.

Teachers however, bring in a different perspective as a child development professional who aptly knows the norm-accepted milestones and appropriate behaviors of children. They see how these children interact and behave with peers. They are also able to see and observe the children in a more open and non-biased manner. Teachers may also be resource people to link the parents to services their children may need; psychologist, audiologist, therapists

It is time to shun the blame-game. A true parent-teacher partnership and collaboration begins with recognizing the strengths that each party may offer. By pooling and sharing this knowledge, they become more equip in helping the child develop into his utmost potential. Generally, parents today express their desire to learn best ways to raise their children. They want to learn how to improve their child-rearing skills.Creating a partnership allows the parents to ask the teacher (expert) and makes way for the teacher to mentor seeking and eager parents.

Through close teacher-parent partnership and collaboration, parents can find ways to become more efficient as parents and as teachers to their children. Parents are children's teachers too. They teach by word, by all they say and do, they teach by example. The close relationship helps parent see that their everyday experiences with their children give teachable moments, opportunity for learning and education. It helps parent realize their share of responsibility in rearing the school-aged children. Teachers can keep parents informed of the children's development; beyond the academic markings and scores. Teachers and schools should offer better feedback about the child's development; emphasizing that schooling is beyond academic markings. Parents learn to appreciate their children's abilities and social character which the child is unable to express inside the home.

Furthermore, parents who gain meaningful partnerships and collaboration with the teachers feel more important. It diminishes their isolation and anxiety in child-rearing.

When parents and teachers collaborate and create a partnership, the teachers and school gain and foster a deep trust with parents too. Parents become more willing to take part and share their time and resources. Often, the school as a community evolves as the teacher-parent partnership is fostered.

But most importantly, the children benefit from all this. The visibility and atmosphere of mutual partnership brings to the children a sense of belonging and hence shows more progress for the children. Children learn through example on how partnerships and collaborations can be maximized. Children learn to take responsibilities for themselves and shun the blaming others or pointing fingers for failures. They become accepting of their failures, in as much as they celebrate their successes. Through partnership and collaboration among parents and the school system; children envision a society of responsibility, initiative and action. We then, are able to rear our children to be synergistic parts of the community, our societies and our country as well.

Experienced Special Education Professional with a demonstrated history of working in the individual and family services industry. Skilled in Assessment of Special Children, Behavior Coaching, Family and Support Group Facilitation, Program Development for children with special needs, Teaching different age groups. Strong education professional with a Master of Arts (M.A.) focused in Special Education and Teaching (30 units) from University of the Philippine, Diliman.. Also a former educator for the De La Salle Philippines, Inc. A woman enjoying the roller-coaster ride of motherhood. Technology has been residing in the educational sector for quite some time now and you can actually use it to your child's benefit. Not all mobile apps are a source of distraction and some of them can actually work to improve your child's grades. When used correctly, even mobile phones can help students to study, follow an effective schedule and maintain the required academic discipline. You can surely hand over a phone or a tablet to your child, but make sure they have the following 6 apps installed.

    YouTube Kids

YouTube continues to be one of the best resources to learn about topics as students respond to videos more than textual information. Depending on your child's level, give access to the standard app or download YouTube Kids where students can stream educational videos on almost any subject. The safe search option gives you parental control and YouTube also maintains a strict policy about the searches performed. Be it reading about astronomy or learning a new instrument, YouTube is still the best app to have at hand.


The best school in Sonepat have foreign language classes as a mandate in their curriculum. Your child can extend his/her knowledge and practice the language on the go with the Duolingo app. It has lessons on a variety of languages including French, Spanish, German, Swedish, Italian and even English. The download is completely free and sports a variety of lessons for all levels. Students learning a foreign language can combine the school materials with this app and learn about the right pronunciations and spellings when the teacher is not immediately available.


Time Management is one of the key parameters that help students to improve their grades and proper planning goes a long way to effective studying. The Timetable app combines both these features into a single application along with a host of other benefits. Students can create their school routine into this app, plan their days with colour coding, set reminders for lessons and homework and create a schedule for upcoming exams. The app can be synced across multiple android devices and can interact with other apps. Students can also configure Timetable to turn the phone silent during lesson hours to avoid all distractions.

This paid app is an investment worth considering as it can work wonders in improving your child's vocabulary. The cost is lesser than an actual dictionary and gives you access to over twenty lakh definitions along with thesaurus features, antonyms, synonyms, origin, history and much more. Your child's phone can also have a widget on the home screen where displays their "Word of the Day" from where students can continuously learn without actually indulging in reading. The free version comes with ads but the paid one has no such distractions.

    Dragon Box

The top schools in Sonepat believe in starting mathematics from an early age and Dragon Box provides the perfect platform to facilitate that. Children will hardly respond to just numbers but if mathematics is mixed with educational games and fun videos, they will pick up the concepts of algebra and geometry faster. With the Dragon Box app, you can help your child to make math fun and improve the overall learning experience. It is simple to use, gives the student's access to 5 learning apps and makes the overall subject easier to understand. Dragon Box can be your answer to activity-based learning.


One of the best apps around to take notes, mark important points and bookmark resources across all platforms. Evernote can be used by students to compose their essays, prepare soft copies of their class notes, perform research for projects, build a checklist, create reminders and so on. This free app is available across all devices with the necessary sync and students can access their materials from anywhere. Your child can use it as a notebook, daily journal, subject planner and much more. Evernote really makes organising easier and definitely the bags lighter.

The top school in Sonepat will always acknowledge the benefits of mobile apps and will encourage the students to use the helpful ones. Swarnprastha is one such institute that falls into that list and maintains their own school app to help the students and parents. The SCHOOFI app of the school bridges the gap between the parents and the faculty and provides a host of key benefits including real-time notifications, upcoming event reminders, exam result declarations and much more. It is time that students access the full potential of the available technology to improve their grades and mobile apps can really be their helpful guide. Research is an essential part of conducting business and engaging in the scientific community. Students, academics, and business leaders participate in research to gain critical knowledge about particular topics they do not understand well. These topics can be anything from the discovery of new vaccines to have a greater insight of a target market. Following the steps in the research process will help ensure that you are adhering to a rigorous scientific method.

1.) Understand Your Problem: It will be pretty challenging to design a study if you don't at first understand the nature of the problem. While you may have a ballpark understanding of the problem, actually pinpointing that problem into a sentence can be excruciatingly frustrating. Sometimes you will need to review the evidence, conduct interviews, and complete some non-scientific experimentation to define the situation or problem better. The more knowledge and experience a person has the easier it will be to grasp what is going on.

2.) Conduct Background Research: You can better understand what type study to conduct if you are aware of the current research. You may just find that the problem has already been solved or is close enough that you can draw some inferences for your business without the additional expenses associated with new research. Keep strong notes of the studies you find because your literary review will provide a detailed discussion of current findings on the topic.

3.) Formulate Your Research Question: Your research question is the centerpiece of any study. A quick glance at the research question will tell you precisely what question the study will attempt to resolve. As you build your study, the design will reflect back on the research question (s). Typically research questions are labeled as R1 and R2 and are very explicitly written so they can be measured.

4.) Design Your Study: The study design is based on the need to answer the research question. If the study seeks to evaluate some phenomenon statistically, but the variables are not well known, then an exploratory design might be beneficial. It is always wise to look at similar studies on the topic to get a better understanding of the design you need to use.

5.) Gain Approvals and Funding (If Needed): Depending on which entity you work for you may need different types of approvals. On an academic level, you may need a university's Research Board or International Review Board approvals. Company employees may need to obtain permission from senior management. Whether you are working with private, government, public, personal or corporate money it is wise to have it before you move into spending money.

6.) Obtain Necessary Materials: Sometimes you will need special equipment while at other times you will use online surveys, existing data, historical information, etc. It is helpful to know where you are going to obtain this information, pay for the services you need, and collect written permission to access information.

7.) Conduct the Study: Conducting your study will take time and careful effort. Make sure that you follow procedures correctly to hold up against scrutiny. If you wave from your processes outlined in the study, you may need to go back and reauthorize those changes with funding and oversight boards. The more consistent you are with each piece of data collection the stronger your study will be regarding validity.

8.) Evaluation The Data and Your Results: Once you have collected your data you will need to find a way to evaluate it to disprove the null hypothesis. Disproving the null hypothesis means the alternative, or the one you seek, is justified via a specified confidence level. There is software available like SPSS or even free software like Microsoft Excel that can do the necessary work.

9.) Report, Publish and Share: The ultimate goal is to contribute to a body of knowledge by sharing your results. The most common methods are to conduct a presentation at a conference or have it published in a peer-reviewed journal. Even if you cannot do this, you can still have it posted on the web for others to see.
 Studying Abroad is one of the most beneficial decisions for a student, as it not only help them find better career opportunities, but also give them the best experience of a new culture. But just only the thought of leaving your country and settling down in a new place gives Goosebumps. There are a number of things you need to plan and prepare for and if you literally have no idea about what next to do, so, you shouldn't hesitate to consult Study Abroad Consultants. They will guide you the best for your future. But before that takes a look at the challenges a student may face and how to successfully conquer them.

    Problem In Finding The Right University: One of the common problem students who want to study abroad face is that they fail to find out the right university to take admission for their bright future. And approaching the consultant is the solution to the problem, as they guide you chooses not only the right course, but also helps in admission and university selection, etc.
    Accommodation Problems: Visiting a new country and finding the best, safe and cheapest accommodation is easier said than done. Consulting the experts help you find the best accommodation without falling into a fake trap. To conquer the problem, you need to book a place before you leave the country, so, you have a roof to stay in a new place.
    VISA And Other Documentation: Most of the students fail to go abroad for their higher study because they fail to pass the VISA interview or submitting all the documents required for the same. Well, the only solution to the problem is approaching Study VISA Consultants, who help you arrange all the documents in a correct manner and also prepare you for the VISA interview.
    Financial Problem: Pursuing higher studies in abroad is costly and therefore, it is important to prepare a budget to sort the things out. Make sure you plan for everything and have some savings to survive in a new country.

These are some of the common problems students may face and one can easily conquer them. Make sure you approach a highly experienced and knowledgeable Overseas Study Consultants, as they'll help you overcome all the barriers and ease the overall process for you. They'll help you, from the counseling to final immigration; so, you can mount heights in your career, where sky is the limit.
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A Discussion of the "Middle Kingdom", Population, and Industrialization

For the ones who love to study and read, any place can be good enough to engage in some quality reading and studying. These people might even argue that the space where you are in is immaterial and that knowledge is the only crucial aspect that should be considered; Physical context is secondary, and your foremost focus should be to concentrate on what you are studying. But when we transfer this reasoning to the reality of the educational systems, the truth turns out to be otherwise: having good infrastructure is decisive for the students to achieve their expected academic results. In simple words, the overall infrastructure of an educational institutional lay a direct impact on the performance and success rate of its students.

The fact of the matter is that good infrastructure, with proper laboratories, well-stocked libraries, and spacious classrooms, make it possible for the children to study without obstacles and compromises. In addition, it tends to improve the interest, as well as attendance. The investments made in school infrastructure plays a pivotal role in ensuring that the children do not need to settle for anything less than the best facilities and attain the highest quality of education that enables them to compete on a global level.

Advantages of a School with good Infrastructure:

    Serves to ensure attendance and timely completion of academic cycles

According to the findings of the World Bank in Peru, the investments in school facilities have a significant positive effect on the attendance rates of the students. When the school lacks the basic and high-end infrastructural requirements, the students tend to rely on outside resources to fill up that gap, and this, in turn, makes them reluctant about going to the school regularly. The effect of the lack of adequate infrastructure at school is seen in the dwindling attendance rates and the early dropout rates of the students.

    Caters to provide motivation to the teachers

The evidence of research and studies drawn from all over the world showcase that the teachers in schools with good infrastructure have, on average, 10 percent less absenteeism than teachers in schools with deficient infrastructure. The fact is that the presence of proper infrastructure ensures that the teachers have all the tools readily available for them to offer the best possible support to their students and this works to further amplify their interest in teaching.

    Improves the overall academic performance

The investments made in a school's infrastructure ultimately turns out to be evident in the academic results of its students and also the overall performance of the school. When you have world-class infrastructure in place, you are basically offering the students all the facilities that they need to smoothly and effectively imbibe the knowledge imparted to them by the teachers.

The State-of-the-Art Infrastructural Facilities at Banyan Tree School

We, at Banyan Tree School, one among the Top 5 Schools in Chandigarh, believe that the infrastructural facilities that we offer to our students play a crucial role in the all-encompassing development of our students as well as the school. Our sprawling campus is facilitated with high-end labs, large sports ground, well-equipped music rooms, huge auditorium, and a well-stocked library, all of which serve to ensure that our pupils can avail all the amenities that they need to witness a world-class learning environment.

Here's taking a brief look at all the contemporary infrastructural amenities that we, at Banyan Tree, have brought forward for our students:

Advanced and Updated Laboratories: We have a well-built physics, chemistry, general science, and computer labs at our school that are equipped with a wide range of apparatus and equipment to strengthen, supplement, and provide a practical base to the theoretical concepts taught in class.

Large Sports Ground: We lay equal emphasis on the physical development of our budding geniuses and believe that their inherent talent in sports needs expert grooming under our trainers. We, hence, offer ample options in sports, from Basketball, Football, Cricket, and Badminton to Throw-Ball, Table-Tennis, and more, and to enable that, we have maintained a huge sports ground where our students can practice their favorite sports.

Spacious and Well-Equipped Music and Dance Room: The lessons in the music and dance room aim to familiarize the students with the rich cultural heritage of our nation, and also to foster a fine sense of creativity, appreciation, and rhythm among the young minds.

Extensive Auditorium: We, at Banyan Tree School, have a state-of-the-art auditorium with a massive seating capacity, equipped with an effective light and audio-visual system. The school has hosted many prestigious seminars, lectures, and Inter-School events at this venue.

Well-Stocked Library: Our library offers a collection of more than 12,000 books covering the widest range of subjects for the children to imbibe knowledge that goes beyond the boundaries of their textbooks and syllabus.

At Banyan Tree School, recognized as one of the top-ranked CBSE schools in Chandigarh, we sincerely believe that the infrastructure of a school has a significant role along with other essential educational inputs to be able to facilitate comprehensive developmental opportunities for the children. Towards that end, we have equipped our campus with the best of infrastructural facilities and hope to further enhance and improve upon the same to keep up with our mission of providing our students with the best educational experience. Kissing is one of the oldest human activities. It is the expression of affection, liking or love for another person. If you go back to the history of kissing, public kissing may not have existed a few hundred years ago and still not permitted in some cultures, but we can safely assume that kissing has existed for thousands of years even if it was done privately as it is a very natural form of human emotional expression.

Students of psychology will usually try to analyze kissing from a psychoanalytic perspective. A kiss is an oral activity, like smoking or eating, it involves the mouth and can be traced back to the oral stage of psychological development. To an extent the oral fixation theory may be true. This means some people are addicted to activities of the mouth, derive pleasure from sensations in the mouth and are thus also addicted to kissing or related activities of the mouth. Oral fixation describes certain personalities, but in this article, I will focus largely on the analysis of a kiss and the science involved.

Kissing involves neural and hormonal activity and several recent researchers have indicated that dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin and sex hormones are released during romantic kissing. Dopamine and serotonin are chemicals (neurotransmitters) and oxytocin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. When emotions are involved, the amygdala and hypothalamus in the brain are activated and the activation of amygdala and hypothalamus, release of chemicals and stimulation of the pituitary and sex glands during kissing create attachment and gives a feeling of euphoria in romantic relationships. In non-romantic relationships, kissing creates affection and emotional attachment and is usually experienced among friends, family members, social relationships and so on. A kiss on the cheek is a type of social greeting and is common in many cultures.

A kiss can be interpreted in many ways and the attributes of a kiss could be analyzed according to the length or duration, depth, position or location, facial expression before and after a kiss,and these elements when analyzed will finally help derive the covert or overt motivations of kissing.

Since kissing is done on the human body, we have limited spatial coordinates to begin with. No one will hopelessly or passionately kiss a tree or a wall, although that kind of activity can also be analyzed.

Let's start with the top of the head. A short, brief fleeting kiss on the top of the head indicates affection. Parents kiss their children on the head or forehead. When bosses or colleagues kiss on the head, that can look patronizing and even odd. Forehead kissing is common among family and older relatives often kiss children or young people on the forehead. Brief kissing on the cheek is accepted as social custom among some cultures and is seen as a mark of formality or formal friendliness and camaraderie. Brief kiss on the cheek is often a mark of rapport, affection among workers and support or encouragement.

As soon as the kiss moves to other parts of the body, the analysis gets more complex. Apart from the head or the cheek which is considered affectionate, kissing on the eyes, nose, ears or chin would be considered romantic. Kissing on the nose has an element of affection involved but on the chin, it is more intimate.

The first principle is that the further down the kiss goes, the more intimate it becomes. So, a kiss on the leg is obviously far more intimate than a kiss on the hand. The lip kissing is of course, very intimate and we are not considering it within this principle. Kiss on the hand is actually a more traditional and formal romantic expression. In ancient times, men proposed women by kissing the hand. It is formal romanticism.

The second principle is that the longer it gets, the more intimate it becomes. So, intimacy through kissing is about space and time.

The third principle is that the spatial and temporal aspects will determine the motivation of the kiss. This means a kiss can indicate many expressions including love, romance, sexual attraction, affection, formal support and the type of kiss or the motive will be largely determined by the spatial and temporal attributes of the kiss.

A long kiss on the front of the neck is bolder than a kiss on the back of the neck. The kiss on the inner surface of the skin such as the palm or inner wrist or elbow is more intimate than kiss on the outer surface and so on. Public kissing on the inner surface of the body may look a bit desperate, so must be done privately. What about the temporal aspects? A man sits beside you in the park, speaks with you for a while, gives a brief kiss on your fingers and walks away. It is strange behavior but does happen. That is the uncertain kiss. Long term lovers will engage in more prolonged kisses. Prolonged mouth to mouth kisses create attachment and even a level of trust. The mouth, tongue, lips have large number of nerve endings and are extremely sensitive, thus mouth to mouth kissing gives heightened pleasure. Romantic kissing is of course a prelude to sexual relations.

Let me go to the third principle from which you derive the motivations of kissing. Why did a friend kiss you in a certain way? As long as the kiss is not too long and is on the cheek or face, that is an indication of support, encouragement and affection. Kissing may not have sexual meanings and connotations. Affection between two people is quite possible, even if they are not lovers. Whether of the same or opposite sex, two people can feel great love, affection and support for each other and kiss each other on the head, cheek or face and such expressions are often natural, especially in teamwork. Say in a soccer team, players kiss and hug other teammates as expressions of encouragement and the same type of rapport may be seen in teammates working together in any field, and the team members can be male or female, it does not matter. When people are excited about something, they may kiss and hug other people standing near them, but it is just emotional expression and release of energy, not exactly directed towards the other people. So,suppose your colleague standing next to you was watching a game, got excited about a soccer goal and started hugging you because he was all excited, it doesn't mean he was harassing you, he was just expressing his excitement and emotions. But if this kind of behavior becomes a habit, you must be a bit more cautious and make it a point not to stand next to him. He obviously has other covert motivations.

Let us finally move to the science. Research has shown that romantic kissing involves endocrine glands and release of dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin and sex hormones such as testosterone. Although most forms of kissing involves emotions and activities of the amygdala and hypothalamus in the brain, romantic kissing is triggered by intense chemical reactions in the body and release of neurotransmitters and hormones. Hormones finally create social bonds and kissing is one of the social tools that have helped humans to form bonds, survive and create families and societies for thousands of years. Without kissing, we would be a lonely race and become extinct rather quickly. Margaret Brown was more than just an American Socialite and Philanthropist; she was a woman with a big heart and a love for people. Maggie had a humble beginning which may have given her the concern for the less fortunate that made her famous. Born as Margaret Tobin on July 18, 1867 in Hannibal, Missouri, to Irish Catholic immigrant parents living in a two room house, she had three brothers, a sister and two half sisters. Her parents were both widowed very young.

When Margaret was eighteen she and her older brother Daniel moved to Leadville, Colorado, with her sister Mary Ann and her sister's husband. In those days mining in Colorado offered many a chance at a good job in the industry or in businesses that served the miners and their families. Maggie lived with her brother in a small house and found work in a department store. Margaret eventually met and married J.J. Brown.

Maggie had a chance to marry rich men that made their fortune in mining and tried courting her. Instead, she married a self-educated entrepreneur. When asked about that she stated:

"I wanted a rich man, but I loved Jim Brown. I thought about how I wanted comfort for my father and how I had determined to stay single until a man presented himself who could give to the tired old man the things I longed for him. Jim was as poor as we were, and had no better chance in life. I struggled hard with myself in those days. I loved Jim, but he was poor. Finally, I decided that I'd be better off with a poor man whom I loved than with a wealthy one whose money had attracted me. So I married Jim Brown."

The couple were married on September 1, 1886 in Leadville at the Annunciation Church. Over the next three years they had two children, Larry and Helen. In 1893 everything changed for the Brown Family. J.J. was responsible for the discovery of gold at the Little Jonny Silver Mine owned by Ibex Mining. Switching from silver to gold production made the company rich and turned around the ninety percent unemployment rate among miners in Leadville. Ibex gave him 12,500 shares of stock and a position on their Board of Directors.

Margaret donated her time and effort to working in a soup kitchen that served the needy families of Miners down on their luck. She was outspoken when it came to woman's rights and very active in the Suffrage movement to gain women the right to vote. Maggie assisted in fundraising efforts for the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (completed in 1911). She also worked with Judge Ben Lindsey to help destitute children and establish the United States' first juvenile court, which formed the model for the modern U.S. juvenile courts system.

Margaret's social views were not supported by her husband who had very sexist beliefs about the role of women in marriage and society. Sadly, these views were typical among most wealthy men and their socialite wives in those days. Although it never happened to her, women were regularly and legally whipped by their husbands for most any infraction. These might include serving dinner late, having a messy house or failing to properly supervise children. Maggie also managed to annoy J.J. and others by wearing oversized women's hats to draw attention to herself and her causes.

In less than a year the Browns were wealthy and in 1894 they bought a Victorian Mansion in Denver. In 1897 they built a summer home near Bear Creek in Southwest Denver. Margaret helped establish the Denver Women's Club with other wealthy wives. The club's mission was to improve the lives of women through education and philanthropy. Maggie embraced her new role by getting involved with the arts and becoming fluent in French, German, Italian, and Russian.

Margaret Brown became a wealthy socialite, but she despised snobs. Maggie gave successful parties attended by many of Denver's well known socialites. However, even after starting an association which celebrated French Culture (which was a favorite of wealthy women in those days), she was unable to gain entry into Denver's most elite women's group, Sacred 36. Members of that group attended exclusive parties and dinners hosted by Louise Sneed Hill. Brown called her "the snobbiest woman in Denver".

Maggie's early feminist views constantly annoyed her husband and some of the more influential members of Denver Society. In 1909 Margaret and J.J. signed a separation agreement. As religious Catholics they never divorced, but lived apart for the remainder of their lives. The two still communicated in a friendly way and cared for one another. Margaret received a cash settlement, maintained possession of their homes and received a $700 monthly allowance to continue her travels and social work.

Margaret Brown spent 1912 traveling throughout the Middle East and Europe. While in France she received a message from Denver saying that her eldest grandchild was seriously ill. She booked First Class passage on the RMS Titanic which was the very next passenger ship leaving for New York. Her daughter Helen was supposed to accompany her, but she decided to stay in Paris to continue her studies. Brown was transported to the Titanic aboard the tender SS Nomadic at Cherbourg, France, on the evening of April 10, 1912.

On April 15, 1912, the Titanic struck an iceberg at around 11:40 pm. Less than three hours later it slipped below the surface. During the rush to save as many as possible, Maggie helped other passengers get into their lifeboats, refusing to board her own. She was finally persuaded to leave the ship in Lifeboat No. 6. The brash Brown was later called "unsinkable" by a newspaper which reported on her stubborn refusal to leave the ship until she had helped as many as possible to board lifeboats, as well as her other actions to save lives and help survivors.

As the Titanic sank Maggie urged Quartermaster Robert Hichens to turn the half empty lifeboat around and look for survivors. Hichens was afraid the lifeboat would either be pulled down by suction from the Titanic or swamped by people trying to get into it, so he refused her request. Passengers from her life boat later told the press that Brown then threatened to throw the crewman overboard. After the Titanic Survivors were picked up by the RMS Carpathia, Brown organized a committee of First Class Passengers to help Second and Third Class Passengers. They provided essentials and even arranged for counseling.

Margaret Brown ran for a Senate seat from Colorado in 1914. She abruptly ended her campaign to return to France to work with the American Committee for Devastated France during World War I. Afterward, she used her new found fame as "The Unsinkable Mrs. Brown" to speak out for literacy among women and children, and better working conditions for Miners. Maggie also continued to push for women's rights and raise money for worthy causes like the Red Cross.

During the 1920s Maggie fulfilled a lifelong ambition and became an actress. The desire the public had to meet her because of all the publicity she received brought people out in large numbers. Her fame as a Titanic survivor and her outspoken brashness made her an instant success in the world of theater. She outlived her husband, but on October 26, 1932, Margaret Brown died in her sleep at the Barbizon Hotel in New York City. An autopsy revealed that she died because of a brain tumor. She was buried with J.J. Brown in the Cemetery of the Holy Rood in Westbury, Long Island, New York.

Margaret Brown's fame as a heroic Titanic survivor helped her promote historic preservation, and commemoration of the bravery and chivalry displayed by the men aboard the Titanic. During World War I she worked with the American Committee for Devastated France and helped wounded French and American soldiers. She was awarded the French Légion d'Honneur for her actions, activism, and philanthropy  Leather shoulder rigs are a true classic. Let us just name, Clint Eastwood in Dirty Harry, Steve McQueen in Bullitt, Bruce Willis in Die Hard With A Vengeance and last but not lest Don Johnson in Miami Vice. If those fellas are not the epitome of stylish then I don't know what is. You may be asking - but are shoulder holsters for concealed carry really practical or are they just some old-timey nonsense. The answer is obvious, they are perfect for concealed carry, your daily carry, carrying in you car and also on a hike. Shoulder holsters are versatile, comfortable and reliable. This article will help you in the following:

How To Choose A Shoulder Holster

How To Adjust A Shoulder Holster

How To Wear A Shoulder Holster

How To Choose A Shoulder Holster

Choosing a shoulder holster is the first and hardest step. Let's break it down to easy steps. You may look after it if you:

Want to conceal carry but don't want to wear a belt holster

Want to conceal a large canon such as a 8" revolver

Want to look cool as Dirty Harry

Let's face it. Belt holsters can be a burden. Carrying a holster on your belt all day long just might somehow get on your nerves, pinching, printing sweating etc. Shoulder holster concealed carry can be the solution you are looking for. It's as easy as putting on a coat. Slide your arms through the harness and you are strapped without any belt obstructions. And don't forget that you don't have to put your gun belt through a maze of belt loops. And you know what the best part is? Spare ammo on the other side. Concealment in a shoulder holster is as easy as putting your jacket over it and you are set. If you think your gun is larger then just go for a vertical shoulder holster. The gun will be facing downward and you will still have it within a hands reach.

The vertical shoulder holster is also a solution for people who like their guns large and loud. It denies the statement that you can't conceal a 8" Smith & Wesson. Yes you can in a vertical shoulder holster. And again, you have spare speedloaders on your other side. Imagine the time it would take to draw 8" of steel from your pants and compare it to a shoulder holster where it's just grab, break and draw. The same goes with 1911 shoulder holsters, a full size fit's a horizontal shoulder holster well, but may be more practical in a vertical holster.

The large variety and designs of shoulder holsters can practically conceal firearms of any caliber and size. From.357 to.45, you can bet that it would function perfectly in a shoulder holster. And now to the best part of having a shoulder holster - the coolness factor. Well, I admit it's not the best part, of course the best part is the safe carry aspect etc., etc., but you have to give some credit to the heroes of TV for making the holster look so cool. A statement to the great era of cop movies.

How To Adjust A Shoulder Holster

Now, you just received your custom made shoulder holster for a.357 revolver, it has a double speedloader counterbalance and the mahogany leather looks amazing also because you added a personal monogram to it. You unpack it a suddenly feel like you received something from IKEA. A holster, counterbalance, parts, straps, harness, ugh. Not as easy as a Kydex holster that you just hook on the belt, right? Well, maybe yes but if you want something pretty you have to do something about it.

Adjusting a shoulder holster is very important and, surprisingly, very easy. It can be broken into 3 steps:

Adjust the harness

Position the Holster

Position the counterbalance

We all come in different shapes and sizes and one thing that shoulder holsters can do is that they can be made to serve people even in XXXL sizes. Big guys. Your harness can be adjusted very easily to fit well and safely. You have to be sure that it's tight but not too tight because your arms and upper body will move and the harness must allow movement. If you are planning to add more layers of clothing, i.e. a shirt and a sweater, just adjust the harness to be bigger or vice versa. Be sure to wear an empty rig and position the harness crossing in the middle of your back.

Make sure the straps aren't twisted and that they lay flat against your shoulders and upper back. If your holster rig has shoulder pads, make sure they are centered front-to-back, high up on your shoulders near your neck. You may not find the perfect fit the first time you put the holster on, so pay attention to how it feels over time and adjust it. One way to test this is to stand in front of a mirror and perform a series of movements. Watch if the rig moves around a lot or stays tight. Also take notice of whether or not the harness feels comfortable when you move around.

If the harness is tight enough to your satisfaction be sure that the holster is 1 - 2 inches below your armpit. Not too hing as it would obstruct your arm movement and not too low as it would be a burden to draw. You must be able to reach around your body and instinctively find the handle of your firearm. If you prefer a shoulder rig with belt tie downs (those little straps of leather that go from the holster to your belt) just do the same and don't forget to attach the tie downs to your belt. Their advantage is that they have a snap so you don't have to bother with unbuckling your belt. Be sure to position the can't of the holster to your liking and don't get distracted if the holster moves from front to back, this happens sometimes and is not an issue.

Last but not least, your counterbalance also must be adjusted. If your shoulder rig only comes with a holster part and no pouch then the process is easy, just make sure the elastic part is not too tight and allows you to move and at the same time balances the weight of the firearm. If you have a pouch on your harness then just do the same as with the holster. Position it where you instinctively reach for a spare mag or speedloader. And you are all set.

Our Tip: Leather Shoulder Holster System

If you are looking for a versatile shoulder rig made of sturdy leather that can be adjusted easily and worn with comfort this is the one for you. You'll get a rig with a holster and a double mag pouch - or a double speedloader pouch in the case of a revolver. It comes fully assembled so you are just a break-in away from carrying it. And if you ever feel like dual carrying you can just order a holster for the left side and mount it on easily. The holster and pouch can be tied to the belt via belt clips and the whole rig can be concealed under a layer of clothing.

How to wear a shoulder holster

If you have your shoulder rig adjusted and ready to go to action you might stumble upon a simple question - how to wear a shoulder holster? The answer will be provided below, just right now imagine you are a detective and the crooks see you taking off your jacket as you interrogate them and your 5" chrome 1911 says "Hi!" to them. Cool, huh?

Now to the more important part. It comes to 4 easy steps:

Be sure to have a loose jacket

Be sure to keep the jacket open

Don't forget your concealed carry permit

Practice, practice, practice.

The loose jacket doesn't have to be 3 sizes larger than you are but a little looseness is always fine as this helps avoiding the print of the harness on your back plus the tighter the garment the more hugged the holster. But a comfort-liking man wears a comfortable jacket or shirt so there is no place to worry. Even if you suit up you can use a shoulder holster to carry your self-defense piece and people won't notice that you are armed.

The important part of wearing a shoulder holster is draw practice, keep in mind that you'll have to have the jacket open in order to gain fast access to the firearm. Practice this often and mind that some movement may show your gun, so don't spin around with open arms like they do in movies. Just keep it cool and protected.

If you cover your rig with your jacket always keep in mind that it's concealed carry so you better have that permit with you. Avoid any unnecessary conflict and just be armed, prepared and safe.

Shoulder Holster Draw

Practicing a shoulder holster draw is the key. It's easy and can be done in 3 easy steps. The key is repetition until it becomes an instinct and intuition.

The first step is to clear your garment. This means swiping it with your non dominant hand and reaching for the handle with your dominant hand at the same time. If you don't have a jacket or any shirt over it it's wise to put your non dominant hand up, bend it in the elbow and just move it upwards, this will grant you easier access to your firearm and will keep your non shooting hand safe.

The second step is to reach for the firearm and get a good grip. The thumb-break can be easily broken with your thumb in the case of horizontal shoulder holster and/or with your index finger if you carry vertically. China's history has been long and varied throughout her existence. From ancient times to modern, she has seen and made great strides both in her influence around the world, and amongst those of her own people. China is the originator of inventions such as paper, printing, the compass, and gunpowder. The Great Wall, the Summer Palace, the Temple of Heaven, and the Yun Gang Grottoes are only a touch of the magnificent architectural structures that the Chinese have forged in her long history. However, China has also experienced devastating times that have nearly destroyed it and its people. From the feudal dynasties of the past to the failed and disastrous policies of the "Great Leap Forward", China has seen and experienced times that were almost her undoing. In the midst of her roller coaster ride however, one thing has remained constant: the Sino-centrism of the Chinese people.

This attitude can most readily be seen in the Chinese name for itself: (pronounced Zhang guó) literally means middle kingdom. From ancient times the Chinese have thought of themselves as a superior people who ruled all others from the center of the world. If you weren't Chinese, you were either a barbarian or at best, a vassal who was forever a servant of the Chinese. While this belief has changed in modern times, the Chinese people today still have a nationalistic pride in their country.

China has long been known for her belief in and use of "soft power"; that is, the domination of another country not by force, but rather through subtle cooperation and attraction. This use of soft power has been around for centuries, even if it has not always been intentional. Many characteristics of Chinese culture have been adopted by neighboring countries. Japan, Korea, and others share certain aspects of Chinese religious beliefs, written script, and the predominate importance of the group being more important than the individual. In more modern times, this use of soft power can be seen in the acceptance of cheap Chinese labor from other countries, which has brought billions of dollars in income to the Chinese government and its people. Even as recently as 2007, Chairman Hu Jintao informed the 17th Communist Party Congress that it was important for China to increase its use of power.

Of course, with the increase of power and prestige comes a whole new slew of problems. In China this can be seem most predominately in the issue of population growth; a continuing problem that has yet to be fully addressed or solved. Even though steps have been taken in recent years to curb the population explosion, it appears to be a problem that will haunt China for many years to come.

Probably the most devastating quest initiated by China's first chairman, Mao Zedong, was to declare that there was power in numbers, thus encouraging an already extremely large population of people to begin propagating at an unprecedented rate. In 1949, the first year of Mao's reign, the population of China was already at 541 million, nearly twice that of the population of the United States, the world's third largest country, in 2011. Today, China boasts, albeit not proudly, of having more than 1.3 billion people at her disposal. China, which has only 7% of the world's arable land, nonetheless holds roughly 20% of the world's population.

Despite the fact that nearly 30 million people died due to the disastrous policies instituted during the "Great Leap Forward", and the many policies put forth by the Chinese government to curb the number of births in China, many other factors have contributed to great increases in the numbers of Chinese people. Amongst these was the fact that between 1945 and 2008, the infant mortality rate fell from 200 per 1,000 to 23 per 1,000. In addition, life expectancy rose from an average of 35 to 74 years. When China instituted the one child policy it was predicted that China's population would be around 1.25 billion by 2000 and decrease to 500 million by 2070. But these numbers have proven to be way off. In 2000 the population was already at 1.27 billion.

As has happened in many cultures in the past, China was not content to grow at a slow and steady pace. With his introduction of what would become known as the "Great Leap Forward", Mao Zedong put forth policies putting forth changes which would transform China from a predominately agricultural society to an industrial society. These changes, which were put forth too soon and at too great a pace, would almost completely decimate the land and the people. In an already large and still growing society of people, lowering the amount of agricultural production was almost sure to lead to homegrown famine and starvation. When industrial production began to decline, the already impoverished nation was left with no food, but also no income to purchase food from the outside world. Millions would never live to tell their story.

Since the late 1970s, China has seen a need to make some changes not only to their domestic policies, but also to their foreign policies. It was discovered that if they were to survive as a nation, they must be more open to investment and subsidies from other countries. Deng Xiaoping, Mao Zedong's successor, saw the value of an open door policy declaring, "It doesn't matter whether it's a black cat or a white cat, as long as it catches mice."

While many improvements were made considering foreign policy during Deng's time, many more improvements have been since then. In 1998 the Chinese people were encouraged to begin buying their own houses, as opposed to living in company owned houses. This led to a growth in the building sector. Although many businesses still remained the property of the government, many of the decisions formally made by the government, have now been handed over to the firm managers.

Although China has many more years and much more work to do, she has made drastic steps toward becoming a mighty global power. The people of China have the potential and wherewithal to become a great nation, but will they have the patience needed to succeed remains a viable question.

Stephen Moore is an English and history teacher at Shanxi Datong University in Datong, China. He is also a student at Ashworth College where he is pursuing a master's degree. He writes articles on varying subjects: English, history, the bible, college life, life in China, etc. This article was written for the course Essentials of Sociology at Ashworth College. Other articles by the same author can be read
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