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Friday, December 14, 2018

A Single Protein Can Boost Stem Cell Regeneration

Glyphosate was discovered by John E. Franz, an organic chemist who synthesized the herbicide while working at Monsanto's Company in 1970. This chemical became, and now remains, the active ingredient in Roundup, a broad-spectrum herbicide used and sold by Monsanto. Today, it is still used extensively in agriculture, and by millions of homeowners to control weeds in their landscapes.

Roundup is applied directly to the leaves of weeds, and works systemically. This means that once it is absorbed by the leaf, it spreads throughout the entire plant system. It kills the plant by interfering with the "shikimate pathway". This seven step pathway is a metabolic route which is vital to the lifecycle of bacteria, fungi, algae, and every living plant. When disrupted, the biosynthesis of necessary folates and aromatic acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan are halted. As production of these proteins fail, plant death is inevitable.

Initially, Roundup effectively controlled weed growth, however, contact with the crop plant was detrimental. Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum killer, which means it cannot distinguish between crop plants and unwanted weed species. In 1996, Monsanto set out to remedy this problem, by introducing Roundup Ready soybean. This was the first genetically engineered crop that was developed by Monsanto. It was created by introducing a bacterial gene resistant to glyphosate into the DNA of the soybean. This gene was derived from a type of bacteria called Agrobacteria, and now allowed farmers to spray Roundup not only the weeds, but the entire crop without damage.

In consequent years, a variety of other Roundup Ready crops were developed, including cotton, corn, sugarbeets and other crops. Roundup was effective until all susceptible weeds were killed, however, soon resistant weeds began to dominate farmlands. These "superweeds" did not respond to the same dosages that killed their susceptible predecessors, therefore, growers simply increased application rates, to eradicate these superweeds.

The US Department of Agriculture has estimated that Roundup Ready crops have resulted in an additional application of 383 million pounds of herbicides. This increase in the use of glyphosate greatly increases the likelihood of the chemical running off into nearby ecosystems. At these elevated concentrations, glyphosate potentially causes environmental damage, as well as damage to human health.

Monsanto claims that glyphosates are not toxic to humans because human cells do not function by the shikimate pathway. This is true, however, the bacteria in our gut do use this pathway! This means that the glyphosphate residue that we ingest kills the beneficial bacteria in our digestive systems. Pathogenic bacteria are not affected, and as a result they dominate the gut, deplete micronutrients and produce ammonia and formadelhyde by-products, that toxify the system causing inflammation.

In addition, the absence of the production of folates and aromatic compounds cause cell shrinkage, resulting in the leakage of these produced toxins into the blood stream. This results in the development of many diseases including encephalitis, Alzheimer's, diabetes, obesity, cancer and autism to name a few.

The damages and affects of humans ingesting glyphosate (Roundup) require further investigation. At present, there are no regulations that require the labeling of products that contain glyphosate or the incorporation of GMO's. We are the ONLY country that does not require this! Therefore, many people continue to suffer unknowingly, completely unaware of the havoc this herbicide is causing within their bodies.

Taking your child for regular routine physicals is crucial, especially during those first few years. These routine physicals, also known as well-child visits, allow your child's pediatrician to ensure that your child's growth and development are happening as expected and that there is no cause for concern.

So many times parents worry that their kids do not start walking or talking at around the same time as most other children. Sometimes, this is really no cause for concern as every child starts walking and talking at different times. Sometimes, however, this developmental delay could be due to other factors. If you are worried, you can voice your fears at your child's next visit to the clinic and the pediatrician may conduct a few additional tests to eliminate any possible problems.

Another reason why routine physicals are so important is that symptoms of some health conditions are not immediately noticeable and may go undiagnosed and untreated for too long. Because a younger child's organs are not yet fully developed they are particularly vulnerable. At a well-child visit, the pediatrician will be able to identify the early symptoms and start treatment immediately so that the disease does not progress any further.

Here's what the doctor will do at your child's next pediatric routine physical.

Measure Vital Signs

The first thing that the pediatrician will do is to check that all vital organs are functioning normally and that there are no aberrations. They will check the pulse rate and blood pressure to detect whether there are no abnormalities related to the heart and the circulatory system.

They will also check the height and weight to determine whether your child is developing normally. Accordingly they may make some recommendations for making a few nutritional changes.

In addition, other checks will be done to ascertain the condition of the lungs.

Palpation

This involves physical touching different body parts to establish the location of the lymph nodes and determine whether they are larger or smaller than they should be. If anything unusual is noticed, they may make a note so they can continue to monitor this aspect during the next visit.

Check Your Child's Eyes, Nose And Ears

Eye, nose and ear exams are conducted at every visit as they reveal a lot to the doctor. The condition of the eyes can indicate an infection or it may indicate some other type of visual problem. In checking the nose, the pediatrician will look for sign of upper respiratory distress and also for the development of sinuses. An ear exam is done to test the hearing abilities and also to check if there is any discharge from the ear.

Lastly, the doctor will do a complete physical check to ascertain if there are any general health issues.

Would you believe if we told you that stem cell regeneration can be boosted with a single protein? Wondering about the implications? It means you can recover from injuries faster. CIRM-funded scientists from the UCLA Broad Stem Cell Research Center confirmed that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are responsible for generating cells in the blood and immune system, enact faster when the bone progenitor cells are injected, which are available in bone marrow.

The bone progenitor cells are able to improve the survival and recovery of HSCs when a protein called dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) is applied. This process helps in fast recovery from injuries. The study was administered on a Petri dish and in mice.

The main aim of the surgery was to understand how different cell types, available in the bone marrow interact with HSCs in order to increase their ability to recover from any injury and at the same time to enhance the immune system. Senior author on the study, UCLA Professor Dr. John Chute and his team discovered that bone progenitor cells in the bone marrow secrete Dkk1 protein when an injury occurs. They conducted the study on mice by exposing them to irradiation, which causes the injuries.

Dr. Chute stated that the earlier study showed that the endothelial cells were needed for blood stem or cord cell regeneration when the mice were exposed to irradiation. However the latest surgery demonstrated that bone progenitor cells are also needed for blood stem or cord cell regeneration if exposed to irradiation. The study showed that Dkk1 not only improves HSC regeneration, but it also enhances the regeneration of HSCs. On the contrary, when Dkk1 protein was deleted from HSCs, the stem cells did not recover or regenerate.

He said, "The precise functions of bone cells, stromal cells and endothelial cells in regulating blood stem cell fate are not completely understood," he added. "Our prior studies demonstrated that endothelial cells are necessary for blood stem cell regeneration after irradiation. The current study suggests that bone progenitor cells are also necessary for normal blood stem cell regeneration after irradiation, and that this activity is mediated by secretion of Dkk1 by the bone progenitor cells."

Dr. Chute went on saying how his latest research on secreting a single protein on HSCs is related to his previous study on deleting a gene from HSC stem cells to boost blood cell regeneration. He said, "In this paper we discovered the role of a niche cell-derived protein, Dkk1, and how it promotes blood stem cell regeneration after myelosuppression in mice."

He also explained, "In the Cell Reports paper, we described our discovery of an adaptor protein, Grb10, which is expressed by blood stem or cord cells and the inhibition of which also promotes blood stem cell regeneration after myelosuppression. So, these are two novel molecular mechanisms that regulate blood stem or cord cell regeneration that could be therapeutically targeted."

We can safely conclude that both the researches have contributed a lot in treatments of patients in need of a boost in their blood and immune systems followed by radiation or bone marrow transplants.

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